Wives and Husbands

“In five ways should a wife as the western direction be respected by a husband: by honoring, not disrespecting, being faithful, sharing authority, and by giving gifts. And, the wife so respected reciprocates with compassion in five ways: by being well-organized, being kindly disposed to the in-laws and household workers, being faithful, looking after the household goods, and being skillful and diligent in all duties.” DN 31

“Pañcahi kho, gahapatiputta, ṭhānehi sāmikena pacchimā disā bhariyā paccupaṭṭhātabbā – sammānanāya anavamānanāya anaticariyāya issariyavossaggena alankārānuppadānena. Imehi kho, gahapatiputta, pañcahi ṭhānehi sāmikena pacchimā disā bhariyā paccupaṭṭhitā pañcahi ṭhānehi sāmikaṁ anukampati – susaṁvihitakammantā ca hoti, sangahitaparijanā ca, anaticārinī ca, sambhatañca anurakkhati, dakkhā ca hoti analasā sabbakiccesu. Imehi kho, gahapatiputta, pañcahi ṭhānehi sāmikena pacchimā disā bhariyā paccupaṭṭhitā imehi pañcahi ṭhānehi sāmikaṁ anukampatianukampati: has pity on. Evamassa esā pacchimā disā paṭicchannā hoti khemā appaṭibhayā.”

သူကြွယ်သား ငါးပါးသော အကြောင်းတို့ဖြင့် လင်သည် အနောက်အရပ်မည်သော မယားကို ပြုစုအပ်၏။ အမြတ်တနိုး ခေါ်ဆိုခြင်းဖြင့်လည်းကောင်း။ နှိမ့်ချ၍ မခေါ်ဆိုခြင်းဖြင့်လည်းကောင်း။ မိမိမယားကို လွန်၍ အခြားမိန်းမတို့၌ မပျော်ပါးခြင်းဖြင့်လည်းကောင်း။ စဖိုဆောင်အုပ်စိုးမှုကို လွှဲအပ်ခြင်းဖြင့်လည်းကောင်း။ အဝတ်တန်ဆာကို ပေးခြင်းဖြင့်လည်းကောင်း (ပြုစုအပ်၏)။ သူကြွယ်သား ဤငါးပါးသော အကြောင်းတို့ဖြင့် လင်သည် ပြုစုအပ်သော အနောက်အရပ်မည်သော မယားသည် ငါးပါးသော အကြောင်းတို့ဖြင့် လင်ဖြစ်သူကို စောင့်ရှောက်၏။ အမှုကြီးငယ်ကိုလည်း ကောင်းစွာ စီရင်၏။ နှစ်ဖက်သော ဆွေမျိုးကိုလည်း ချီးမြှောက်၏။ မိမိလင်မှတစ်ပါး အခြားယောကျာ်း၌ လွန်ကျူးသော အကျင့်မှ ကင်း၏။ ရှာဖွေစုဆောင်းခဲ့သော ဥစ္စာကို ထိန်းသိမ်းစောင့်ရှောက်၏။ အလုံးစုံသော ကိစ္စတို့၌ လိမ္မာ၍ ပျင်းရိခြင်းကင်း၏။ သူကြွယ်သား ဤငါးပါးသော အကြောင်းတို့ဖြင့် လင်သည် ပြုစုအပ်သော အနောက်အရပ်မည်သော မယားသည် ဤငါးပါးသော အကြောင်းတို့ဖြင့် လင်ကို စောင့်ရှောက်၏၊ ဤသို့ပြုစုသည်ရှိသော် ဤအနောက်အရပ်သည် လုံခြုံ၏၊ ငြိမ်းချမ်း၏၊ ဘေးကင်း၏။

“Này Gia chủ tử, có năm cách, người chồng phải đối xử với vợ như phương Tây: Kính trọng vợ, không bất kính đối với vợ; trung thành với vợ; giao quyền hành cho vợ; sắm đồ nữ trang với vợ; Này Gia chủ tử, được chồng đối xử như phương Tây theo năm cách như vậy, người vợ có lòng thương tưởng chồng theo năm cách: Thi hành tốt đẹp bổn phận của mình; khéo tiếp đón bà con; trung thành với chồng; khéo gìn giữ tài sản của chồng; khéo léo và nhanh nhẹn làm mọi công việc. Này Gia chủ, người vợ được người chồng đối xử như phương Tây theo năm cách và người vợ có lòng thương tưởng chồng theo năm cách. Như vậy phương Tây được che chở, được trở thành an ổn và thoát khỏi các sự sợ hãi.”

「以西方為妻子應該被丈夫以五處盡力:尊敬、不輕視、不通姦、棄捨權威、給飾品。屋主之子!以西方為妻子被丈夫以五處盡力者,以這五處憐愍丈夫:她是善整備工作者、攝持從僕者、不通姦者,她守護已得的,她對一切應該作的事是善巧者與不懶惰者,屋主之子!以西方為妻子被丈夫以五處盡力者,以這五處憐愍丈夫。這樣,這西方被安穩地、無怖畏地包覆。」

Top: Yellow Vented Bulbuls
Below: Urostylididae – Urolabida sp (related to stink bugs)

Two Kinds of People

“Bhikkhus, these two kinds of persons are rare in the world. What two? One who takes the initiative in helping others and one who is grateful and thankful. These two kinds of persons are rare in the world.” – AN 2.119

“Dveme, bhikkhave, puggalā dullabhā lokasmiṁ. Katame dve? Yo ca pubbakārī, yo ca kataññū katavedī. Ime kho, bhikkhave, dve puggalā dullabhā lokasmin”ti.

“Có hai hạng người này, này các Tỷ-kheo, khó tìm được ở đời. Thế nào là hai? Người thi ân trước và người biết nhớ ơn đã làm. Hai hạng người này, này các Tỷ-kheo, khó tìm được ở đời.”

ရဟန်းတို့ လောက၌ ရနိုင်ခဲကုန်သော ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်တို့သည် ဤနှစ်မျိုးတို့တည်း။ အဘယ် နှစ်မျိုးတို့နည်းဟူမူ— ရှေးဦးစွာ ကျေးဇူးပြုတတ်သောပုဂ္ဂိုလ်၁လည်းကောင်း၊ ပြုဖူးသောကျေးဇူးကို သိ၍ ကျေးဇူးတုံ့ပြုတတ်သောပုဂ္ဂိလ်၂လည်းကောင်းတို့တည်း။ ရဟန်းတို့ လောက၌ ရနိုင်ခဲသော ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်တို့သည် ဤနှစ်မျိုးတို့ပေတည်းဟု (မိန့်တော်မူ၏)။

「二人世間難得。何等二人?一者前施人者,二者有返復不忘恩。」

White Breasted Kingfisher & Chinese Pond Heron
©Ashin Sopāka 2018

Teacher

“A teacher, monks, should arouse in the one who shares his cell the attitude of a son; the one who shares his cell should arouse in the teacher the attitude of a father. Thus these, living with reverence, with deference, with courtesy towards one another, will come to growth, to increase, to maturity in this dhamma and discipline.” – Kd 1 (Mahāvagga)

“Anujānāmi, bhikkhave, upajjhāyaṁ. Upajjhāyo, bhikkhave, sad­dhi­vihā­ri­kamhi puttacittaṁ upaṭṭhapessati, saddhivihāriko upajjhāyamhi pitucittaṁ upaṭṭhapessati. Evaṁ te aññamaññaṁ sagāravā sappatissā sabhāgavuttino viharantā imasmiṁ dhammavinaye vuḍḍhiṁ viruḷhiṁ vepullaṁ āpajjissanti.”

“ရဟန်းတို့ ဉပဇ္ဈာယ်ဆရာကို ခွင့်ပြု၏။ ရဟန်းတို့ ဉပဇ္ဈာယ်ဆရာသည် အတူနေ တပည့်၌ သားဟူသော စိတ်ကို ထားအံ့၊ အတူနေ တပည့်သည် ဉပဇ္ဈာယ်ဆရာ၌ အဖဟူသောစိတ်ကို ထားအံ့၊ ထိုဆရာတပည့်တို့သည် အချင်းချင်းရှိသေခြင်း တုပ်ဝပ်ခြင်း တူသော အသက်မွေးခြင်း ရှိသည်ဖြစ်၍ နေသည်ရှိသော် ဤသာသနာတော်၌ ကြီပွါးစည်ပင် ပြန့်ပြောခြင်းသို့ ရောက်ကုန်လတ္တံ့။”

“Này các tỳ khưu, ta cho phép vị thầy tế độ. Này các tỳ khưu, vị thầy tế độ sẽ gợi lên ở người đệ tử tâm của người con và người đệ tử sẽ gợi lên ở vị thầy tế độ tâm của người cha. Như thế, trong khi sống cùng nhau có sự tôn kính, có sự phục tùng, có sự cư xử hài hòa với nhau, họ sẽ đạt đến sự lớn mạnh, sự tăng trưởng, sự phát triển trong Pháp và Luật này.”

Good Person Good Family

“When a good person is born in a family, it is for the good, welfare, and happiness of many people. It is for the good, welfare, and happiness of his mother and father, his wife and children, his workers and servants, his friends and companions, and ascetics and brahmins. Just as a great rain cloud, nurturing all the crops, appears for the good, welfare, and happiness of many people, so too, when a good person is born in a family, it is for the good, welfare, and happiness of many people.” – AN 5.42

“Sappuriso, bhikkhave, kule jāyamāno bahuno janassa atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti; mātāpitūnaṁ atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti; puttadārassa atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti; dāsakam­ma­ka­ra­porisassa atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti; mittāmaccānaṁ atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti; samaṇab­rāhma­ṇā­naṁ atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, mahāmegho sabbasassāni sampādento bahuno janassa atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti.”

“ရဟန်းတို့ အမျိုး၌ သူတော်ကောင်းဖြစ်ထွန်းသည်ရှိသော် များစွာသော လူအပေါင်း၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန် ချမ်းသာရန် ဖြစ်၏။ အမိအဖတို့၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန် ချမ်းသာရန်ဖြစ်၏၊ သားမယား၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန် ချမ်းသာရန် ဖြစ်၏၊ ကျွန်အမှုလုပ်တို့၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန် ချမ်းသာရန် ဖြစ်၏၊ အဆွေခင်ပွန်းတို့၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန်ချမ်းသာရန် ဖြစ်၏၊ သမဏဗြာဟ္မဏတို့၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန် ချမ်းသာရန် ဖြစ်၏။ ရဟန်းတို့ ကြီးစွာသော မိုးသည် ခပ်သိမ်းသော ကောက်စပါးတို့ကို ကောင်းစွာ ပြည့်စုံစေသည် ဖြစ်၍လူများစွာ၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန် ချမ်းသာရန် ဖြစ်သကဲ့သို့” … ဟု (မိန့်တော်မူ၏)။

“Bậc Chân nhân, này các Tỷ-kheo, sinh ra trong gia đình, đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho nhiều người; đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho mẹ cha; đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho vợ con; đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho các người hầu hạ, làm công; đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho các bạn bè, thân hữu; đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho các Sa-môn, Bà-la-môn. Này các Tỷ-kheo, ví như trận mưa lớn đem lại các mùa gặt được nhiều chín muồi, đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho nhiều người.”

「比丘們!當善人出生在家中時,他是對眾人有利益、有利、安樂者:是對父母有利益、有利、安樂者;是對妻與子有利益、有利、安樂者;是對奴僕、工人、傭人有利益、有利、安樂者;是對朋友、同事有利益、有利、安樂者;是對沙門、婆羅門有利益、有利、安樂者。猶如當大雨雲滋潤一切穀物時,它是對眾人有利益、有利、安樂者,同樣的。」

Top: Chinese Swan Goose
Middle: Eurasian Tree Sparrow
Bottom: Cattle Egret
©Ashin Sopāka 2017

Buddha Tends a Sick Monk

Now at that time a certain monk was suffering from dysentery and lay where he had fallen in his own excrement. … Then the Lord said to Ānanda: “Go and fetch water so we can wash this monk.” So Ānanda brought water and the Lord poured it out while Ānanda washed the monk all over. Then taking the monk by the head and feet, the Lord and Ānanda together carried him and laid him on a bed. Later, the Lord called the monks together and asked them: “Why monks, did you not look after that sick monk?”

“Because he was of no use to us, Lord.”

“Monks, you have no mother or father to look after you. If you do not look after each other who will? He who would nurse me, let him nurse the sick.” -Vin i 268–Vin i 311

Tena kho pana samayena aññatarassa bhikkhuno kucchi­vikārā­bādho hoti. So sake muttakarīse palipanno seti … Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi—“gacchānanda, udakaṁ āhara, imaṁ bhikkhuṁ nahāpessāmā”ti. Bhagavā udakaṁ āsiñci. Āyasmā ānando paridhovi. Bhagavā sīsato aggahesi. Āyasmā ānando pādato uccāretvā mañcake nipātesuṁ. Atha kho bhagavā etasmiṁ nidāne etasmiṁ pakaraṇe bhikkhusaṁghaṁ sannipātāpetvā bhikkhū paṭipucchi – “Kissa taṁ bhikkhū na upaṭṭhentī”ti?

“Ahaṁ kho, bhante, bhikkhūnaṁ akārako; tena maṁ bhikkhū na upaṭṭhentī”ti.

“Natthi vo, bhikkhave, mātā, natthi pitā, ye vo upaṭṭhaheyyuṁ. Tumhe ce, bhikkhave, aññamaññaṁ na upaṭṭha­his­satha, atha ko carahi upaṭṭhahissati? Yo, bhikkhave, maṁ upaṭṭhaheyya so gilānaṁ upaṭṭhaheyya.”

တရံရောအခါ တပါးသောရဟန်းအား ဝမ်းသက်သောရောဂါ ဖြစ်၏။ ထိုရဟန်းသည် မိမိကျင်ကြီးကျင်ငယ်၌ လူးလှမ့်လျက်အိပ်ရ၏။ ထို့နောက် မြတ်စွာဘုရားသည် အသျှင်အာနန္ဒာကို “အာနန္ဒာ သွားချေ၊ ရေဆောင်ယူခဲ့လော့၊ ဤရဟန်းကို ရေချိုးကုန်အံ့” ဟု မိန့်တော်မူ၏။ “ကောင်းပါပြီ အသျှင်ဘုရား” ဟု ဆို၍ အသျှင် အာနန္ဒာသည် မြတ်စွာဘုရားအား ဝန်ခံ၍ ရေကိုဆောင်ယူလာ၏၊ မြတ်စွာဘုရားသည် ရေကိုသွန်းလောင်းတော်မူ၏၊ အသျှင်အာနန္ဒာသည် ဆေးကြောလေ၏၊ မြတ်စွာဘုရားသည် ဦးခေါင်းမှ ကိုင်ယူတော်မူ၏၊ အသျှင်အာနန္ဒာသည် ခြေထောက်မှ ချီမ၍ ညောင်စောင်း၌ အိပ်စေကုန်၏။ ထို့နောက် မြတ်စွားဘုရားသည် ဤအကြောင်းအရာကြောင့် ရဟန်းအပေါင်းကို စည်းဝေးစေပြီးလျှင် ရဟန်းတို့ကို “ရဟန်းတို့ အဘယ်ကြောင့် ထိုရဟန်းကို မလုပ်ကျွေးကုန်သနည်း” ဟု (မေးတော်မူ၏)။

“အသျှင်ဘုရား ဤရဟန်းသည် ရဟန်းတို့အား မလုပ်ကျွေးဘူးပါ၊ ထို့ကြောင့် ထိုရဟန်းကို ရဟန်းတို့သည် မလုပ်ကျွေးပါကုန်” ဟု (လျောက်ကုန်၏)။

ရဟန်းတို့ သင်တို့အား လုပ်ကျွေးမည့် အမိအဖတို့ မရှိကုန်၊ ရဟန်းတို့ သင်တို့သည် အချင်းချင်း မလုပ်ကျွေးခဲ့လျှင် အဘယ်သူသည် လုပ်ကျွေးလတ္တံ့နည်း။ ရဟန်းတို့ ငါဘုရားကို လုပ်ကျွေးသော ရဟန်းသည် နာဖျားသော ရဟန်းကို လုပ်ကျွေးရာ၏။

Vào lúc bấy giờ, có vị tỳ khưu nọ bị bệnh kiết lỵ. Vị ấy nằm dài ở đống phân và nước tiểu của chính mình, bị lem luốc … Khi ấy, đức Thế Tôn đã bảo đại đức Ānanda rằng:—“Này Ānanda, hãy đi và mang nước lại. Chúng ta sẽ tắm cho vị tỳ khưu này.”—“Bạch ngài, xin vâng.” Rồi đại đức Ānanda nghe theo đức Thế Tôn đã mang nước lại. Đức Thế Tôn đã xối nước. Đại đức Ānanda đã rửa ráy toàn bộ. Rồi đức Thế Tôn đã đỡ phần đầu, đại đức Ānanda ở phần chân, đã nâng lên và đặt ở trên giường. Sau đó, đức Thế Tôn nhân lý do ấy nhân sự kiện ấy đã triệu tập hội chúng tỳ khưu lại rồi hỏi các vị tỳ khưu rằng: “Vì sao các tỳ khưu không phục vụ vị ấy?”

“Bạch ngài, vị tỳ khưu ấy là người không có làm gì cho các tỳ khưu, do đó các tỳ khưu không phục vụ vị ấy.”

“Này các tỳ khưu, các ngươi không có mẹ, không có cha là những người có thể phục vụ các ngươi. Này các tỳ khưu, nếu các ngươi không phục vụ lẫn nhau thì giờ đây ai sẽ phục vụ đây? Này các tỳ khưu, vị nào có thể phục vụ ta, vị ấy có thể phục vụ người bệnh.

“Yo, bhikkhave, maṁ upaṭṭhaheyya so gilānaṁ upaṭṭhaheyya.”