Four Summaries of Dhamma

“Great king, there are four summaries of the Dhamma that have been taught by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened. Knowing and seeing and hearing them, I went forth from the home life into homelessness. What are the four? ‘Life in any world is unstable, it is swept away’… ‘Life in any world has no shelter and no protector’…‘Life in any world has nothing of its own; one has to leave all and pass on’…‘Life in any world is incomplete, insatiate, the slave of craving.’” – MN 82

“Atthi kho, mahārāja, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro dhammuddesā uddiṭṭhā, ye ahaṁ ñatvā ca disvā ca sutvā ca agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito. Katame cattāro? ‘Upaniyyati loko addhuvo’… ‘atāṇo loko anabhissaro’… ‘asaraṇo loko sabbaṁ pahāya gamanīyaṁ’… ‘ūno loko atitto taṇhādāso’ti.”

“Thưa Ðại vương, có bốn sự thuyết giáo Chánh pháp, được Thế Tôn, bậc Tri Giả, Kiến giả, bậc A-la-hán, Chánh Ðẳng Giác giảng dạy. Do tôi biết, tôi thấy và tôi nghe thuyết giáo ấy, mà tôi xuất gia, từ bỏ gia đình, sống không gia đình. Thế nào là bốn? ‘Thế giới là vô thường, đi đến hủy diệt’… ‘Thế giới là vô hộ, vô chủ’… Thế giới là vô sở hữu, ra đi cần phải từ bỏ tất cả’… ‘Thế giới là thiếu thốn, khao khát, nô lệ cho tham ái.'”

「大王!有這四個法的總說被那有知、有見的世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者誦說,我知道、看到、聽到那些後而從在家出家,成為非家生活。哪四個呢?『世間是不堅固的,它被帶走。』… 『世間無庇護所、無保護者。』… 『世間是無所有的,應該走向捨斷一切。』… 『世間是不足的、不滿足的、渴愛的奴隸。』

Crested Myna ©Ashin Sopāka 2018

Speeding Arrow Rolling Death

“Faster than the speed of that man 1, monks, is the speed of the sun & moon. Faster than the speed of that man, faster than the speed of the sun & moon, is the speed of the devas who rush ahead of the sun & moon. Faster than the speed of that man, faster than the speed of the sun & moon, faster than the speed of the devas who rush ahead of the sun & moon, the force of one’s life span comes to an end. Thus you should train yourselves: ‘We will live heedfully.’ That’s how you should train yourselves.” – SN 20.6

“Yathā ca, bhikkhave, tassa purisassa javo, yathā ca can­dima­sūriyā­naṁ javo, tato sīghataro. Yathā ca, bhikkhave, tassa purisassa javo yathā ca can­dima­sūriyā­naṁ javo yathā ca yā devatā can­dima­sūriyā­naṁ purato dhāvanti tāsaṁ devatānaṁ javo, () tato sīghataraṁ āyusaṅkhārā khīyanti. Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, evaṁ sikkhitabbaṁ: ‘appamattā viharissāmā’ti. Evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabban”ti.

ရဟန်းတို့ ထိုမြားဖမ်းသော ယောကျာ်း၏ လျင်မြန်ခြင်းထက် လနေတို့၏ လျင်မြန်ခြင်းက ပို၍ လျင်မြန်၏၊ လနေတို့၏ လျင်မြန်ခြင်းထက် လနေတို့၏ ရှေ့မှ ပြေးသွားသော နတ်တို့၏ လျင်မြန်ခြင်းက ပို၍ လျင်မြန်၏၊ ထိုနတ်တို့၏ လျင်မြန်ခြင်းထက် အလွန်လျင်မြန်စွာ အသက်တို့သည် ကုန်ဆုံးကြရကုန်၏၊ ရဟန်းတို့ ထို့ကြောင့် ဤသာသနာတော်၌ ငါတို့သည် “မမေ့မလျော့ကုန်သည် ဖြစ်၍ နေကုန်အံ့”ဟု ဤသို့လျှင် သင်တို့ ကျင့်ရမည်ဟု (ဟောတော်မူ၏)။

“Và như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là sự nhanh nhẹn của người ấy. Và như vậy là sự nhanh nhẹn của mặt trăng, mặt trời, còn nhanh hơn sự nhanh nhẹn trước. Và như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo là sự nhanh nhẹn của người ấy, và như vậy là sự nhanh nhẹn của mặt trăng, mặt trời, và như vậy là sự nhanh nhẹn của các chư Thiên chạy trước mặt trăng, mặt trời. Còn nhanh nhẹn hơn là sự biến diệt của thọ hành (thọ mạng của các sự vật). Do vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, các Ông cần phải học tập như sau: “Chúng tôi sẽ sống không phóng dật”.

「比丘們!如那位男子的速度,日月的速度比之更快速。
比丘們!如那位男子的速度、如日月的速度、如跑在日月前面那些天神們的速度,壽行被耗盡比之更快速。比丘們!因此,你們應該這麼學:『我們要住於不放逸。』比丘們!你們應該這麼學。」

Baby bird ©Ashin Sopāka 2017

Notes:

  1. Catching flying arrows before they hit the ground

Heap of Bones

“Bhikkhus, the skeletons of a single person, running on and wandering in saṁsāra for an aeon, would make a heap of bones, a quantity of bones as large as this Mount Vepulla, if there were someone to collect them and if the collection were not destroyed.”

But when one sees with perfect wisdom
The four noble truths as they are—
Suffering, the origin of suffering,
The overcoming of suffering,
And the noble eightfold path
Leading to relief from suffering—

Having merely run on
Seven times at the most,
By destroying all fetters
One makes an end of suffering.

“Ekapuggalassa, bhikkhave, kappaṁ sandhāvato saṁsarato siyā evaṁ mahā aṭṭhikaṅkalo aṭṭhipuñjo aṭṭhirāsi yathāyaṁ vepullo pabbato, sace saṁhārako assa, sambhatañca na vinasseyyā”ti.

Yato ca ariyasaccāni,
sammappaññāya passati;
Dukkhaṁ duk­kha­sa­muppādaṁ,
dukkhassa ca atikkamaṁ;
Ariyañ­caṭṭhaṅ­gikaṁ maggaṁ,
duk­khū­pasa­ma­gā­minaṁ.
Sa sattakkhattuṁ paramaṁ,
sandhāvitvāna puggalo;
Duk­khas­santa­karo hoti,
sabba­saṁ­yoja­nak­khayā”ti.

 

စုဆောင်းထားသူလည်း ရှိခဲ့မူ စုဆောင်းထားတိုင်းလည်း မပျက်စီးခဲ့မူ တစ်ကမ္ဘာတ်လုံး ပြေးသွားကျင်လည်သော ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်တစ်ယောက်၏ ကြီးစွာသော အရိုးပေါင်း အရိုးပုံ အရိုးစုသည် ဤဝေပုလ္လတောင်ကြီးမျှပင် ရှိသည် ဖြစ်ရာ၏။

ဒုက္ခသစ္စာကိုလည်းကောင်း ဒုက္ခဖြစ်ကြောင်း သမုဒယသစ္စာကိုလည်းကောင်း၊ ဒုက္ခကို လွန်မြောက်ရာ’နိရောဓ’သစ္စာကိုလည်းကောင်း၊ ဒုက္ခ၏ချုပ်ငြိမ်းရာ (နိဗ္ဗာန်သို့) ရောက်ကြောင်းဖြစ်သော မြတ်သော အင်္ဂါရှစ်ပါးရှိသော မဂ္ဂသစ္စာဟု ဆိုအပ်သော အရိယသစ္စာတို့ကိုလည်းကောင်း၊ အကြင်အခါ၌ ကောင်းသော ပညာဖြင့် မြင်၏။ ထိုအခါ ထိုပုဂ္ဂိုလ်သည် (ကာမဘုံ၌) ခုနစ်ကြိမ် အလွန်ပြေးသွား၍ သံယောဇဉ်အားလုံးတို့၏ ကုန်ခြင်းကြောင့် ဒုက္ခ၏အဆုံးကို ပြုလေတော့၏။

Các xương của một người, này các Tỷ-kheo, chạy dài, lưu chuyển có thể lớn như một đồi xương, một chồng xương, một đống xương, như núi Vepulla này, nếu có người thâu người lượm xương lại, gìn giữ chúng không làm chúng hủy hoại.

Khi nhìn thấy bằng trí tuệ chân chánh các Sự Thật Cao Thượng: khổ, nguồn sanh khởi của khổ, sự vượt qua khổ, và đạo lộ cao thượng tám chi phần đưa đến sự yên lặng của khổ.

Và cá nhân (ấy), sau khi rong ruổi tối đa bảy lần, là người thực hiện việc chấm dứt khổ do sự diệt trừ tất cả các ràng buộc.”

Frog Skeleton eaten by Ants ©Ashin Sopāka 2017

Drawing Lines on Water

“Just as a line drawn on water with a stick will quickly vanish and will not last long, so too, human life is like a line drawn on water with a stick. It is limited and fleeting; it has much suffering, much misery. One should wisely understand this. One should do what is wholesome and lead the spiritual life; for none who are born can escape death.” AN 7.74

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udake daṇḍarāji khippaṁyeva paṭivigacchati, na ciraṭṭhitikā hoti; evamevaṁ kho, brāhmaṇa, udake daṇḍarājūpamaṁ jīvitaṁ manussānaṁ parittaṁ lahukaṁ bahudukkhaṁ bahupāyāsaṁ mantāyaṁ boddhabbaṁ, kattabbaṁ kusalaṁ, caritabbaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, natthi jātassa amaraṇaṁ.

သူတော်ကောင်း—ဥပမာတစ်နည်းသော်ကား ရေပြင်၌ လှင်ကန်ဖြင့် ရိုက်ခတ်အပ်သော အရေးအကြောင်းသည် လျင်မြန်စွာသာလျင် ပျောက်ကွယ်၏၊ ကြာမြင့်စွာ မတည်။ သူတော်ကောင်း— ဤအတူသာလျှင် လူတို့၏ အသက်သည် ရေအပြင်၌ ရေးအပ်သော အရေးအကြောင်းနှင့် ဥပမာတူ၏၊ တိုတောင်း လှ၏၊ လျင်မြန်လှ၏၊ များစွာ ဆင်းရဲခြင်းရှိ၏၊ များစွာပင်ပန်းခြင်း ရှိ၏၊ ပညာဖြင့် သိအပ်၏၊ ကုသိုလ်ကို ပြုအပ်၏၊ မြတ်သော အကျင့်ကို့ကျင့်အပ်၏၊ ပဋိသန္ဓေနေရသော ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်အား မသေရမှုမည်သည် မရှိ။

Ví như, này Bà-la-môn, khi trời mưa nặng hạt, bong bóng nước trên nước mau chóng biến mất, không tồn tại lâu dài. Cũng vậy, này Bà-la-môn, như bong bóng nước là đời sống của loài Người, nhỏ bé, không đáng kể, nhiều khổ đau, nhiều ưu não. Với bùa chú, hãy giác ngộ! Hãy làm điều lành, sống đời Phạm hạnh! Với người đã sanh, không có bất tử. (Interesting that the Vietnamese version is different)

婆羅門!猶如棒杖在水面上畫的線急速地消失不久住。同樣的,婆羅門!人的壽命如棒杖在水面上畫的線,是少的, 有限而飛逝,多苦、多惱愁,聰明人應該覺醒,應該做善的,應該行梵行,生者無不死。

Common Rose Swallowtail ©Ashin Sopāka 2016

Monkey Mind

“That which is called ‘mind’ and ‘mentality’ and ‘consciousness’ arises as one thing and ceases as another by day and by night. Just as a monkey roaming through a forest grabs hold of one branch, lets that go and grabs another, then lets that go and grabs still another, so too that which is called ‘mind’ and ‘mentality’ and ‘consciousness’ arises as one thing and ceases as another by day and by night.” – SN 12.61

“Yañca kho etaṁ, bhikkhave, vuccati cittaṁ itipi, mano itipi, viññāṇaṁ itipi, taṁ rattiyā ca divasassa ca aññadeva uppajjati aññaṁ nirujjhati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, makkaṭo araññe pavane caramāno sākhaṁ gaṇhati, taṁ muñcitvā aññaṁ gaṇhati, taṁ muñcitvā aññaṁ gaṇhati; evameva kho, bhikkhave, yamidaṁ vuccati cittaṁ itipi, mano itipi, viññāṇaṁ itipi, taṁ rattiyā ca divasassa ca aññadeva uppajjati aññaṁ nirujjhati.”

“ရဟန်းတို့ စိတ်ဟူ၍လည်းကောင်း၊ မနောဟူ၍လည်းကောင်း၊ ဝိညာဏ်ဟူ၍လည်းကောင်း ဆိုအပ် သော သဘောတရားသည် ညဉ့်၌လည်းကောင်း၊ နေ့၌လည်းကောင်း တခြားတစ်ပါးသာလျှင် ဖြစ်၏၊ တခြားတစ်ပါးသည် ချုပ်၏။ ရဟန်းတို့ ဥပမာသော်ကား ကြီးစွာသော တောအုပ်၌ လှည့်လည်သော မျောက်သည် သစ်ကိုင်းကို ကိုင်ရာ၏၊ ထိုသစ်ကိုင်းကို လွှတ်၍ တစ်ပါးသော သစ်ကိုင်းကို ကိုင်ရာ၏၊ ထိုသစ်ကိုင်းကိုပင် လွှတ်ပြန်၍ တစ်ပါးသော သစ်ကိုင်းကို ကိုင်ယူပြန်ရာ၏။ ရဟန်းတို့ ဤအတူသာလျှင် စိတ်ဟူ၍လည်းကောင်း၊ မနောဟူ၍လည်းကောင်း၊ ဝိညာဏ်ဟူ၍လည်းကောင်း ဆိုအပ်သော သဘောတရား သည် ညဉ့်၌လည်းကောင်း၊ နေ့၌လည်းကောင်း တခြားတစ်ပါးသာလျှင် ဖြစ်၏၊ တခြားတစ်ပါးသည် ချုပ်၏။”

“Còn cái gọi là tâm này, là ý này, là thức này, này các Tỷ-kheo, cả đêm và ngày, khởi lên là khác, diệt đi là khác. Này các Tỷ-kheo, ví như một con khỉ trong khi đi lại trong rừng núi, nắm lấy một nhành cây, bỏ nhành cây ấy xuống, nó nắm giữ một nhành khác. Cũng vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, cái gọi là tâm, là ý, là thức này cả đêm và ngày, khởi lên là khác, diệt đi là khác.”

「那被這樣稱為心、意、識的,日以繼夜依一個生起,依另一個被滅。比丘們!猶如在山邊樹林漫遊的猴子抓著樹枝,放掉那枝後又抓住另一枝,[再]放掉後又抓住另一枝。同樣的,比丘們!那被這樣稱為心、意、識的,日以繼夜依一個生起,依另一個被滅。」

Top: Common Tailorbird
Bottom: Dark Necked Tailorbird
©Ashin Sopāka 2017