Muji Tree*

“Sisters, suppose a great tree is standing possessed of heartwood: its root is impermanent and subject to change, its trunk is impermanent and subject to change, its branches and foliage are impermanent and subject to change, and its shadow is impermanent and subject to change. Now would anyone be speaking rightly who spoke thus: ‘The root, trunk, branches, and foliage of this great tree standing possessed of heartwood are impermanent and subject to change, but its shadow is permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change’?”

“No, venerable sir. Why is that? Because, venerable sir, the root, trunk, branches, and foliage of this great tree standing possessed of heartwood are impermanent and subject to change, so its shadow must be impermanent and subject to change.”

“So too, sisters, would anyone be speaking rightly who spoke thus: ‘These six external bases are impermanent and subject to change, but the pleasant, painful, or neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling that one experiences in dependence upon the six external bases is permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change’?”

“No, venerable sir. Why is that? Because each feeling arises in dependence upon its corresponding condition, and with the cessation of its corresponding condition, the feeling ceases.”

“Good, good, sisters! So it is with a noble disciple who sees this as it actually is with proper wisdom.” MN 146

“Seyyathāpi, bhaginiyo, mahato rukkhassa tiṭṭhato sāravato mūlampi aniccaṁ vipariṇāmadhammaṁ, khandhopi anicco vipariṇāmadhammo, sākhāpalāsampi aniccaṁ vipariṇāmadhammaṁ, chāyāpi aniccā vipariṇāmadhammā. Yo nu kho, bhaginiyo, evaṁ vadeyya: ‘amussa mahato rukkhassa tiṭṭhato sāravato mūlampi aniccaṁ vipariṇāmadhammaṁ, khandhopi anicco vipariṇāmadhammo, sākhāpalāsampi aniccaṁ vipariṇāmadhammaṁ, yā ca khvāssa chāyā sā niccā dhuvā sassatā avipariṇāmadhammā’ti; sammā nu kho so, bhaginiyo, vadamāno vadeyyā”ti?

“No hetaṁ, bhante”. “Taṁ kissa hetu”? “Amussa hi, bhante, mahato rukkhassa tiṭṭhato sāravato mūlampi aniccaṁ vipariṇāmadhammaṁ, khandhopi anicco vipariṇāmadhammo, sākhāpalāsampi aniccaṁ vipariṇāmadhammaṁ; pagevassa chāyā aniccā vipariṇāmadhammā”ti.

“Evameva kho, bhaginiyo, yo nu kho evaṁ vadeyya: ‘cha khome bāhirā āyatanā aniccā. Yañca kho cha bāhire āyatane paṭicca paṭisaṁvedeti sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā taṁ niccaṁ dhuvaṁ sassataṁ avipariṇāmadhamman’ti; sammā nu kho so, bhaginiyo, vadamāno vadeyyā”ti?

“No hetaṁ, bhante”. “Taṁ kissa hetu”? “Tajjaṁ tajjaṁ, bhante, paccayaṁ paṭicca tajjā tajjā vedanā uppajjanti. Tajjassa tajjassa paccayassa nirodhā tajjā tajjā vedanā nirujjhantī”ti.

“Sādhu sādhu, bhaginiyo. Evañhetaṁ, bhaginiyo, hoti ariyasāvakassa yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passato.

နှမတို့ ဥပမာအားဖြင့် တည်နေဆဲဖြစ်သော အနှစ်ရှိသော သစ်ပင်ကြီး၏ အမြစ်သည်လည်း မမြဲ၊ ဖောက်ပြန်ခြင်းသဘောရှိ၏၊ ပင်စည်သည်လည်း မမြဲ၊ ဖောက်ပြန်ခြင်းသဘောရှိ၏၊ အခက်အရွက် သည်လည်း မမြဲ၊ ဖောက်ပြန်ခြင်းသဘောရှိ၏၊ အရိပ်သည်လည်း မမြဲ၊ ဖောက်ပြန်ခြင်းသဘောရှိ၏။

နှမတို့ အကြင်သူသည် “တည်နေဆဲဖြစ်သော အနှစ်ရှိသော ထိုသစ်ပင်ကြီး၏ အမြစ်သည်လည်း မမြဲ၊ ဖောက်ပြန်ခြင်းသဘောရှိ၏၊ ပင်စည်သည်လည်း မမြဲ၊ ဖောက်ပြန်ခြင်းသဘောရှိ၏၊ အခက်အရွက် သည်လည်း မမြဲ၊ ဖောက်ပြန်ခြင်းသဘောရှိ၏။ ယင်းသစ်ပင်၏ အရိပ်သည်ကား မြဲ၏၊ ခိုင်ခံ့၏၊ အမြဲ့တည်၏၊ ဖောက်ပြန်ခြင်းသဘောမရှိ”ဟု ဆိုငြားအံ့၊ ထိုသူသည် အမှန်ပြောဆိုသည် မည်ရာအံ့လောဟု (မေး၏)။

အသျှင်ဘုရား အမှန်ပြောဆိုသည် မမည်ပါ။ အဘယ့်ကြောင့်နည်းဟူမူ— အသျှင်ဘုရား တည်နေ ဆဲဖြစ်သော အနှစ်ရှိသော ထိုသစ်ပင်ကြီး၏ အမြစ်သည်လည်း မမြဲ၊ ဖောက်ပြန်ခြင်းသဘောရှိ၏၊ ပင်စည် သည်လည်း မမြဲ၊ ဖောက်ပြန်ခြင်းသဘောရှိ၏၊ အခက်အရွက်သည်လည်း မမြဲ၊ ဖောက်ပြန်ခြင်း သဘော ရှိ၏။ ယင်းသစ်ပင်ကြီး၏ အရိပ်သည်ကား အဘယ်ဆိုဖွယ်ရာရှိအံ့နည်း၊ မမြဲသည်သာတည်း၊ ဖောက်ပြန် ခြင်းသဘော ရှိသည်သာတည်းဟု (လျှောက်ကြကုန်၏)။

နှမတို့ ဤဥပမာအတူသာလျှင် အကြင်သူသည် “ဤခြောက်ပါးကုန်သော ဗာဟိရာယတနတို့သည် မမြဲကုန်၊ ယင်းခြောက်ပါးကုန်သော ဗာဟိရာယတနတို့ကို စွဲ၍ သုခဝေဒနာကိုလည်းကောင်း၊ ဒုက္ခဝေဒနာ ကိုလည်းကောင်း၊ ဥပေက္ခာဝေဒနာကိုလည်းကောင်း ခံစား၏၊ ထိုဝေဒနာသည် မြဲ၏၊ ခိုင်ခံ့၏၊ အမြဲ တည်၏၊ ဖောက်ပြန်ခြင်းသဘော မရှိ”ဟု ဆိုငြားအံ့၊ ထိုသူသည် အမှန်ပြောဆိုသည် မည်ရာအံ့လောဟု (မေး၏)။

“Ví như, này các Hiền tỷ, có cây to lớn đứng thẳng, có lõi cây, với rễ vô thường, chịu sự biến hoại, với thân cây vô thường, chịu sự biến hoại, với cành lá vô thường, chịu sự biến hoại, với bóng cây vô thường, chịu sự biến hoại. Nếu có người nói như sau: “Có cây lớn đứng thẳng có lõi cây này, với rễ vô thường, chịu sự biến hoại, với thân cây vô thường, chịu sự biến hoại, với cành lá vô thường, chịu sự biến hoại, nhưng bóng mát của cây ấy là thường còn, thường trú, thường hằng, không chịu biến hoại”; này các Hiền tỷ, người ấy có nói một cách chân chánh không?

“Thưa không, thưa Tôn giả. Vì sao vậy? Thưa Tôn giả, cây to lớn đứng thẳng có lõi cây này, có rễ vô thường, chịu sự biến hoại, có thân cây vô thường; chịu sự biến hoại, có cành lá vô thường, chịu sự biến hoại. Còn nói gì đến bóng mát, cũng là vô thường, chịu sự biến hoại!

“Như vậy là phải, này chư Hiền tỷ! Nếu có ai nói như sau: “Sáu nội xứ này là vô thường, và do duyên sáu ngoại xứ này tôi cảm thọ, lạc thọ, khổ thọ hay bất khổ bất lạc thọ; cảm thọ ấy là thường còn, thường trú, thường hằng, không chịu sự biến hoại”; này các Hiền tỷ, người ấy có nói chân chánh không?

“Thưa không, thưa Tôn giả. Vì sao vậy? Thưa Tôn giả, do duyên cái này, cái này, cảm thọ như thế này, như thế này khởi lên. Do diệt các duyên như thế này, như thế này, các cảm thọ như thế này, như thế này cũng biến diệt.

“Lành thay, lành thay, chư Hiền tỷ! Chính phải là như vậy, là cái nhìn như chơn với chánh trí tuệ của vị Thánh đệ tử.”

「姊妹!猶如有堅實心、站立的大樹,樹根是無常的、變易法,樹幹也是無常的、變易法,樹枝樹葉也是無常的、變易法,影子也是無常的、變易法,姊妹們!如果有人這麼說:『那有堅實心、站立的大樹,樹根是無常的、變易法,樹幹也是無常的、變易法,樹枝樹葉也是無常的、變易法,但影子確實是常的、堅固的、常恒的、不變易法。』那樣說時,會是正確地說了嗎?」

「不,大德!那是什麼原因呢?大德!因為那有堅實心、站立的大樹,樹根是無常的、變易法,樹幹也是無常的、變易法,樹枝樹葉也是無常的、變易法,影子不用說也是無常的、變易法。」

「同樣的,姊妹們!如果有人這麼說:『這六外處是無常的,但緣六外處感受的或樂、或苦、或不苦不樂,那是常的、堅固的、常恒的、不變易法。』那樣說時,會是正確地說了嗎?」

「不,大德!那是什麼原因呢?大德!緣於各個對應的緣,然後生起各個受,各個對應緣的滅,各個受就被滅了。」

「姊妹們!好!好!姊妹們!聖弟子以正確之慧如實見確實是這樣。」

* “Muji Tree” is named in honour of Muji, a very special dog. This is actually a Dogwood flower

Foulness in the Body

“Contemplating foulness in the body,
Being mindful of in-and-out breathing,
Ever ardent and seeing clearly
The calming down of all formations:

“Such a bhikkhu who sees rightly
Is thereby well released.
Accomplished in knowledge, at peace,
That sage has overcome all bonds.” – Iti 85

“Asubhānupassī kāyasmiṁ,
ānāpāne paṭissato ;
Sabbasaṅkhārasamathaṁ,
passaṁ ātāpi sabbadā.

“Sa ve sammaddaso bhikkhu,
yato tattha vimuccati;
Abhiññāvosito santo,
sa ve yogātigo munī”ti.

”ကိလေသာကို ပူပန်စေတတ်သော လုံ့လရှိသောအခါ ခပ်သိမ်း ကောင်းစွာ မြင်သော ထိုရဟန်းသည် ခန္ဓာကိုယ်၌ အသုဘအခြင်းအရာကို ရှုသည်ဖြစ်၍လည်းကောင်း၊ ထွက်သက်ဝင်သက်၌ ထင်သော သတိရှိသည်ဖြစ်၍လည်းကောင်း၊ အလုံးစုံသော သင်္ခါရတို့၏ ချုပ်ငြိမ်းမှုကို ရှုသည်ဖြစ်၍လည်းကောင်းထိုအလုံးစုံသော သင်္ခါရတို့ ချုပ်ငြိမ်းရာ၌ အရဟတ္တဖလဝိမုတ္တိဖြင့် လွတ်မြောက်၏။ ထို့ကြောင့် ထိုရဟန်းသည် အဘိညာဉ်ကိစ္စ ပြီးဆုံးပြီဖြစ်၍ ငြိမ်းအေးပြီးလျှင် ယောဂလေးပါးကို လွန်မြောက်ပြီးသူဖြစ်တော့၏”ဟု ဤဂါထာဖြင့် ဆိုအပ်၏။

“Quán bất tịnh trên thân,
Niệm thở vô thở ra,
Tịnh chỉ tất cả hành,
Thường nhiệt tâm, chánh kiến,
Vị Tỷ-kheo như vậy,
Ðã thấy rất chơn chánh,
Từ đấy ở nơi đây,
Vị ấy được giải thoát,
Thắng trí được thành tựu,
Lắng dịu thật an tịnh,
Vị ẩn sĩ như vậy,
Chắc vượt khỏi ách nạn.”

 

「思身不淨念呼吸
正見比丘實解脫
諸行之靜常熟見
賢者離世成牟尼」

 

Cow Skull Hà Nội
©Ashin Sopāka 2019

Four Summaries of Dhamma

“Great king, there are four summaries of the Dhamma that have been taught by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened. Knowing and seeing and hearing them, I went forth from the home life into homelessness. What are the four? ‘Life in any world is unstable, it is swept away’… ‘Life in any world has no shelter and no protector’…‘Life in any world has nothing of its own; one has to leave all and pass on’…‘Life in any world is incomplete, insatiate, the slave of craving.’” – MN 82

“Atthi kho, mahārāja, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro dhammuddesā uddiṭṭhā, ye ahaṁ ñatvā ca disvā ca sutvā ca agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito. Katame cattāro? ‘Upaniyyati loko addhuvo’… ‘atāṇo loko anabhissaro’… ‘asaraṇo loko sabbaṁ pahāya gamanīyaṁ’… ‘ūno loko atitto taṇhādāso’ti.”

“Thưa Ðại vương, có bốn sự thuyết giáo Chánh pháp, được Thế Tôn, bậc Tri Giả, Kiến giả, bậc A-la-hán, Chánh Ðẳng Giác giảng dạy. Do tôi biết, tôi thấy và tôi nghe thuyết giáo ấy, mà tôi xuất gia, từ bỏ gia đình, sống không gia đình. Thế nào là bốn? ‘Thế giới là vô thường, đi đến hủy diệt’… ‘Thế giới là vô hộ, vô chủ’… Thế giới là vô sở hữu, ra đi cần phải từ bỏ tất cả’… ‘Thế giới là thiếu thốn, khao khát, nô lệ cho tham ái.'”

「大王!有這四個法的總說被那有知、有見的世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者誦說,我知道、看到、聽到那些後而從在家出家,成為非家生活。哪四個呢?『世間是不堅固的,它被帶走。』… 『世間無庇護所、無保護者。』… 『世間是無所有的,應該走向捨斷一切。』… 『世間是不足的、不滿足的、渴愛的奴隸。』

Crested Myna ©Ashin Sopāka 2018

Speeding Arrow Rolling Death

“Faster than the speed of that man 1, monks, is the speed of the sun & moon. Faster than the speed of that man, faster than the speed of the sun & moon, is the speed of the devas who rush ahead of the sun & moon. Faster than the speed of that man, faster than the speed of the sun & moon, faster than the speed of the devas who rush ahead of the sun & moon, the force of one’s life span comes to an end. Thus you should train yourselves: ‘We will live heedfully.’ That’s how you should train yourselves.” – SN 20.6

“Yathā ca, bhikkhave, tassa purisassa javo, yathā ca can­dima­sūriyā­naṁ javo, tato sīghataro. Yathā ca, bhikkhave, tassa purisassa javo yathā ca can­dima­sūriyā­naṁ javo yathā ca yā devatā can­dima­sūriyā­naṁ purato dhāvanti tāsaṁ devatānaṁ javo, () tato sīghataraṁ āyusaṅkhārā khīyanti. Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, evaṁ sikkhitabbaṁ: ‘appamattā viharissāmā’ti. Evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabban”ti.

ရဟန်းတို့ ထိုမြားဖမ်းသော ယောကျာ်း၏ လျင်မြန်ခြင်းထက် လနေတို့၏ လျင်မြန်ခြင်းက ပို၍ လျင်မြန်၏၊ လနေတို့၏ လျင်မြန်ခြင်းထက် လနေတို့၏ ရှေ့မှ ပြေးသွားသော နတ်တို့၏ လျင်မြန်ခြင်းက ပို၍ လျင်မြန်၏၊ ထိုနတ်တို့၏ လျင်မြန်ခြင်းထက် အလွန်လျင်မြန်စွာ အသက်တို့သည် ကုန်ဆုံးကြရကုန်၏၊ ရဟန်းတို့ ထို့ကြောင့် ဤသာသနာတော်၌ ငါတို့သည် “မမေ့မလျော့ကုန်သည် ဖြစ်၍ နေကုန်အံ့”ဟု ဤသို့လျှင် သင်တို့ ကျင့်ရမည်ဟု (ဟောတော်မူ၏)။

“Và như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là sự nhanh nhẹn của người ấy. Và như vậy là sự nhanh nhẹn của mặt trăng, mặt trời, còn nhanh hơn sự nhanh nhẹn trước. Và như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo là sự nhanh nhẹn của người ấy, và như vậy là sự nhanh nhẹn của mặt trăng, mặt trời, và như vậy là sự nhanh nhẹn của các chư Thiên chạy trước mặt trăng, mặt trời. Còn nhanh nhẹn hơn là sự biến diệt của thọ hành (thọ mạng của các sự vật). Do vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, các Ông cần phải học tập như sau: “Chúng tôi sẽ sống không phóng dật”.

「比丘們!如那位男子的速度,日月的速度比之更快速。
比丘們!如那位男子的速度、如日月的速度、如跑在日月前面那些天神們的速度,壽行被耗盡比之更快速。比丘們!因此,你們應該這麼學:『我們要住於不放逸。』比丘們!你們應該這麼學。」

Baby bird ©Ashin Sopāka 2017

Notes:

  1. Catching flying arrows before they hit the ground

Heap of Bones

“Bhikkhus, the skeletons of a single person, running on and wandering in saṁsāra for an aeon, would make a heap of bones, a quantity of bones as large as this Mount Vepulla, if there were someone to collect them and if the collection were not destroyed.”

But when one sees with perfect wisdom
The four noble truths as they are—
Suffering, the origin of suffering,
The overcoming of suffering,
And the noble eightfold path
Leading to relief from suffering—

Having merely run on
Seven times at the most,
By destroying all fetters
One makes an end of suffering.

“Ekapuggalassa, bhikkhave, kappaṁ sandhāvato saṁsarato siyā evaṁ mahā aṭṭhikaṅkalo aṭṭhipuñjo aṭṭhirāsi yathāyaṁ vepullo pabbato, sace saṁhārako assa, sambhatañca na vinasseyyā”ti.

Yato ca ariyasaccāni,
sammappaññāya passati;
Dukkhaṁ duk­kha­sa­muppādaṁ,
dukkhassa ca atikkamaṁ;
Ariyañ­caṭṭhaṅ­gikaṁ maggaṁ,
duk­khū­pasa­ma­gā­minaṁ.
Sa sattakkhattuṁ paramaṁ,
sandhāvitvāna puggalo;
Duk­khas­santa­karo hoti,
sabba­saṁ­yoja­nak­khayā”ti.

 

စုဆောင်းထားသူလည်း ရှိခဲ့မူ စုဆောင်းထားတိုင်းလည်း မပျက်စီးခဲ့မူ တစ်ကမ္ဘာတ်လုံး ပြေးသွားကျင်လည်သော ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်တစ်ယောက်၏ ကြီးစွာသော အရိုးပေါင်း အရိုးပုံ အရိုးစုသည် ဤဝေပုလ္လတောင်ကြီးမျှပင် ရှိသည် ဖြစ်ရာ၏။

ဒုက္ခသစ္စာကိုလည်းကောင်း ဒုက္ခဖြစ်ကြောင်း သမုဒယသစ္စာကိုလည်းကောင်း၊ ဒုက္ခကို လွန်မြောက်ရာ’နိရောဓ’သစ္စာကိုလည်းကောင်း၊ ဒုက္ခ၏ချုပ်ငြိမ်းရာ (နိဗ္ဗာန်သို့) ရောက်ကြောင်းဖြစ်သော မြတ်သော အင်္ဂါရှစ်ပါးရှိသော မဂ္ဂသစ္စာဟု ဆိုအပ်သော အရိယသစ္စာတို့ကိုလည်းကောင်း၊ အကြင်အခါ၌ ကောင်းသော ပညာဖြင့် မြင်၏။ ထိုအခါ ထိုပုဂ္ဂိုလ်သည် (ကာမဘုံ၌) ခုနစ်ကြိမ် အလွန်ပြေးသွား၍ သံယောဇဉ်အားလုံးတို့၏ ကုန်ခြင်းကြောင့် ဒုက္ခ၏အဆုံးကို ပြုလေတော့၏။

Các xương của một người, này các Tỷ-kheo, chạy dài, lưu chuyển có thể lớn như một đồi xương, một chồng xương, một đống xương, như núi Vepulla này, nếu có người thâu người lượm xương lại, gìn giữ chúng không làm chúng hủy hoại.

Khi nhìn thấy bằng trí tuệ chân chánh các Sự Thật Cao Thượng: khổ, nguồn sanh khởi của khổ, sự vượt qua khổ, và đạo lộ cao thượng tám chi phần đưa đến sự yên lặng của khổ.

Và cá nhân (ấy), sau khi rong ruổi tối đa bảy lần, là người thực hiện việc chấm dứt khổ do sự diệt trừ tất cả các ràng buộc.”

Frog Skeleton eaten by Ants ©Ashin Sopāka 2017