Four Summaries of Dhamma

“Great king, there are four summaries of the Dhamma that have been taught by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened. Knowing and seeing and hearing them, I went forth from the home life into homelessness. What are the four? ‘Life in any world is unstable, it is swept away’… ‘Life in any world has no shelter and no protector’…‘Life in any world has nothing of its own; one has to leave all and pass on’…‘Life in any world is incomplete, insatiate, the slave of craving.’” – MN 82

“Atthi kho, mahārāja, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro dhammuddesā uddiṭṭhā, ye ahaṁ ñatvā ca disvā ca sutvā ca agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito. Katame cattāro? ‘Upaniyyati loko addhuvo’… ‘atāṇo loko anabhissaro’… ‘asaraṇo loko sabbaṁ pahāya gamanīyaṁ’… ‘ūno loko atitto taṇhādāso’ti.”

“Thưa Ðại vương, có bốn sự thuyết giáo Chánh pháp, được Thế Tôn, bậc Tri Giả, Kiến giả, bậc A-la-hán, Chánh Ðẳng Giác giảng dạy. Do tôi biết, tôi thấy và tôi nghe thuyết giáo ấy, mà tôi xuất gia, từ bỏ gia đình, sống không gia đình. Thế nào là bốn? ‘Thế giới là vô thường, đi đến hủy diệt’… ‘Thế giới là vô hộ, vô chủ’… Thế giới là vô sở hữu, ra đi cần phải từ bỏ tất cả’… ‘Thế giới là thiếu thốn, khao khát, nô lệ cho tham ái.'”

「大王!有這四個法的總說被那有知、有見的世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者誦說,我知道、看到、聽到那些後而從在家出家,成為非家生活。哪四個呢?『世間是不堅固的,它被帶走。』… 『世間無庇護所、無保護者。』… 『世間是無所有的,應該走向捨斷一切。』… 『世間是不足的、不滿足的、渴愛的奴隸。』

Crested Myna ©Ashin Sopāka 2018

No Footprints

“For him whose pollutants are destroyed, who is not
dependent on the foods, for him whose resort is
the liberation that is empty or signless,
like the birds in the sky, his footprint’s hard to find.” – Dhp 93

“Yassāsavā parikkhīṇā, āhāre ca anissito,
suññato animitto ca vimokkho yassa gocaro,
ākāse va sakuntānaṁ, padaṁ tassa durannayaṁ.”

အကြင်ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်တို့အား အာသဝေါကုန်ခန်း၏။ အစာအာဟာရ၌လည်း (တဏှာဒိဋ္ဌိဖြင့်) စွဲမှီခြင်း မရှိ၊ ရာဂစသည် ဆိတ်သုဉ်းသော ရာဂစသော နိမိတ် မရှိသော နိဗ္ဗာန်သည် အကြင်ရဟန္တာပုဂ္ဂိုလ်၏ ကျက်စားရာအာရုံ ဖြစ်၏။ ကောင်းကင်၌ ငှက်တို့၏ ခြေရာကို မသိနိုင်သကဲ့သို့ ထိုရဟန္တာပုဂ္ဂိုလ်၏ ခြေရာဟူသော လားကြောင်းကို မသိနိုင်။

“Ai lậu hoặc đoạn sạch,
Ăn uống không tham đắm,
Tự tại trong hành xứ,
“Không, vô tướng giải thoát. ”
Như chim giữa hư không,
Dấu chân thật khó tìm.”
「阿羅漢猶如大地,耐心具足,
若受人刺激,也不憤怒;
阿羅漢虔誠堅定,一如因陀揭羅;
阿羅漢內心安祥清淨,
如無污泥的池塘,不再生死輪迴。」

 

Little Heron ©Ashin Sopāka 2018

Knowing Now

“Bhikkhus, for a faithful disciple who is intent on fathoming the Dhamma 1, it is natural that he conduct himself this: ‘The Gracious One is the Teacher, I am a disciple; The Gracious One knows, I do not know.’ For a faithful disciple who is intent on fathoming the Dhamma, the Dhamma is nourishing and refreshing. For a faithful disciple who is intent on fathoming the Dhamma, it is natural that he conducts himself thus: ‘Willingly, let only my skin, sinews, and bones remain, and let the flesh and blood dry up on my body, but my energy shall not be relaxed so long as I have not attained what can be attained by strength, energy, and persistence.’ For a faithful disciple who is intent on fathoming the Dhamma, one of two fruits may be expected: either final knowledge here and now or, if there is a trace of clinging left, non-return.” – MN 70

“Saddhassa, bhikkhave, sāvakassa satthusāsane pariyogāhiya vattato ayamanudhammo hoti: ‘satthā bhagavā, sāvakohamasmi; jānāti bhagavā, nāhaṁ jānāmī’ti. Saddhassa, bhikkhave, sāvakassa satthusāsane pariyogāhiya vattato ruḷhanīyaṁ satthusāsanaṁ hoti ojavantaṁ. Saddhassa, bhikkhave, sāvakassa satthusāsane pariyogāhiya vattato ayamanudhammo hoti: ‘kāmaṁ taco ca nhāru ca aṭṭhi ca avasissatu, sarīre upassussatu maṁsalohitaṁ, yaṁ taṁ purisathāmena purisavīriyena purisa­pa­rakka­mena pattabbaṁ na taṁ apāpuṇitvā vīriyassa saṇṭhānaṁ bhavissatī’ti. Saddhassa, bhikkhave, sāvakassa satthusāsane pariyogāhiya vattato dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ—diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā”ti.

“ရဟန်းတို့ယုံကြည်ခြင်းရှိသော ဆရာ့အဆုံးအမ၌ သက်ဝင်၍ ကျင့်နေသော တပည့် ‘သာဝက’ အား— “မြတ်စွာဘုရားသည် ဆရာတည်း၊ ငါသည် တပည့်ဖြစ်၏၊ မြတ်စွာဘုရားသည် သိ၏၊ ငါသည် မသိ”ဟု ဤသဘောသည် ဖြစ်၏။ ရဟန်းတို့ ယုံကြည်ခြင်းရှိသော ဆရာ့အဆုံးအမ၌ သက်ဝင်၍ ကျင့်နေသော တပည့်သာဝကအားဆရာ့အဆုံးအမသည် ကြီးပွါးစည်ပင်၏။ အခြေခိုင်ခံ့၏။ ရဟန်းတို့ ယုံကြည်ခြင်းရှိသောဆရာ့အဆုံးအမ၌ သက်ဝင်၍ ကျင့်နေသော တပည့်သာဝကအား “ကိုယ်၌ အရေသည်လည်းကောင်း၊ အကြောသည်လည်း ကောင်း၊ အရိုးသည်လည်းကောင်း အကယ်၍ ကြွင်းကျန်စေကာမူအသားအသွေးသည် ခန်းခြောက်စေ ကာမူ ယောကျာ်းတို့၏အစွမ်း ယောကျာ်းတို့၏ဝီရိယယောကျာ်းတို့၏လုံ့လဖြင့် ရအပ်ရောက်အပ်သော အရဟတ္တဖိုလ်သို့ မရောက်သေးသမျှ ဝီရိယ၏လျော့ပါးခြင်းသည် မဖြစ်လတ္တံ့” ဟူသော ဤသဘောသည် ဖြစ်၏။ ရဟန်းတို့ ယုံကြည်ခြင်းရှိသောဆရာ့အဆုံးအမ၌ သက်ဝင်၍ ကျင့်သောတပည့်အား “မျက် မှောက်ဘဝ၌ပင် အရဟတ္တဖိုလ်လည်းကောင်း၊ ဥပါဒါန် ကြွင်းရှိသေးမူ အနာဂါမ်ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်အဖြစ်လည်းကောင်း” ဤသို့ နှစ်ပါးသော အကျိုးတို့တွင်တစ်ပါးပါးသော အကျိုးသည် ဧကန်ဖြစ်ရမည်ဟု မြတ်စွာဘုရားသည် ဤတရားကို ဟောတော်မူ၏။ ထိုရဟန်းတို့သည် မြတ်စွာဘုရား၏ စကားတော်ကို နှစ်ခြိုက်ဝမ်းမြောက်ကြ ကုန်၏။”

“Này các Tỷ-kheo, đối với một đệ tử có lòng tin giáo pháp bậc Ðạo sư và sống thể nhập giáo pháp ấy, thời tùy pháp được khởi lên: “Bậc Ðạo sư là Thế Tôn, đệ tử là tôi. Thế Tôn biết, tôi không biết”. Này các Tỷ-kheo, đến với một đệ tử, có lòng tin giáo pháp bậc Ðạo sư và sống thể nhập giáo pháp ấy, thời giáo pháp bậc Ðạo sư được hưng thịnh, được nhiều sinh lực. Này các Tỷ-kheo, đối với đệ tử có lòng tin giáo pháp bậc Ðạo Sư và sống thể nhập giáo pháp ấy, thời tùy pháp này được khởi lên: “Dầu chỉ còn da, gân và xương, dầu thịt và máu trên thân bị khô héo, mong rằng sẽ có tinh tấn lực để chứng đắc những gì chưa chứng đắc, nhờ trượng phu nhẫn nại, nhờ trượng phu tinh tấn, nhờ trượng phu cần dõng”. Này các Tỷ-kheo, đối với một đệ tử có lòng tin giáo pháp bậc Ðạo sư và sống thể nhập giáo pháp ấy, vị ấy sẽ chứng được một trong hai quả như sau: Chánh trí ngay trong hiện tại, và nếu có dư y, chứng quả Bất hoàn.”

「比丘們!對在大師的教誡上深入、轉起的有信弟子來說,這是如法的:『世尊是大師,我是弟子;世尊知道,我不知道。』比丘們!對在大師的教誡上深入、轉起的有信弟子來說,大師的教誡是使人復原的、滋養的。比丘們!對在大師的教誡上深入、轉起的有信弟子來說,這是如法的:『樂於只要剩下皮膚、肌腱、骨骸;只要身體的血肉枯乾,只要以人的毅力、人的活力、人的努力應該達成而未達成者,將沒有活力的止息。』 比丘們!對在大師的教誡上深入、轉起的有信弟子來說,二果其中之一果應該可以被預期:當生完全智,或當存在有餘依時,為不還者狀態。」

Ashy Minivet ©Ashin Sopāka 2017

Notes:

  1. lit. “Teacher’s Dispensation”

Not Yours

“Suppose, bhikkhus, people were to carry off the grass, sticks, branches, and foliage in this Jeta’s Grove, or to burn them, or to do with them as they wish. Would you think: ‘People are carrying us off, or burning us, or doing with us as they wish’?”

“No, venerable sir. For what reason? Because, venerable sir, that is neither our self nor what belongs to our self.”

“So too, bhikkhus, the eye is not yours … the ear is not yours … the nose is not yours … the tongue is not yours … the body is not yours … the mind is not yours … Whatever sensation 1 arises with mind-contact as condition … that too is not yours: abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness.” – SN 35.101

“Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, yaṁ imasmiṁ jetavane tiṇakaṭ­ṭha­sā­khā­palāsaṁ taṁ jano hareyya vā ḍaheyya vā yathāpaccayaṁ vā kareyya, api nu tumhākaṁ evamassa: ‘amhe jano harati vā ḍahati vā yathāpaccayaṁ vā karotī’”ti?

“No hetaṁ, bhante”. “Taṁ kissa hetu”? “Na hi no etaṁ, bhante, attā vā attaniyaṁ vā”ti.

“Evameva kho, bhikkhave, cakkhu na tumhākaṁ … sotaṁ na tumhākaṁ … ghāṇaṁ na tumhākaṁ … jivhā na tumhākaṁ … kāyo na tumhākaṁ … mano na tumhākaṁ … yampidaṁ mano­samphas­sa­pac­cayā uppajjati vedayitaṁ sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā aduk­kha­ma­su­khaṁ vā tampi na tumhākaṁ. Taṁ pajahatha. Taṁ vo pahīnaṁ hitāya sukhāya bhavissatī”ti.

ရဟန်းတို့ ဥပမာသော်ကား ဤဇေတဝန်ကျောင်းတိုက်၌ အကြင်မြက် ထင်း သစ်ခက် သစ်ရွက်သည် ရှိ၏၊ ထို မြက် ထင်း သစ်ခက် သစ်ရွက်ကို လူအပေါင်းသည် ယူသွားသော်လည်းကောင်း၊ မီးရှို့သော်လည်းကောင်း၊ အလိုရှိတိုင်း ပြုသော်လည်းကောင်း “ငါတို့ကို လူအပေါင်းသည် ယူသွား၏ဟူ၍ သော်လည်းကောင်း၊ မီးရှို့၏ဟူ၍ သော်လည်းကောင်း၊ အလိုရှိတိုင်း ပြု၏ဟူ၍လည်းကောင်း” သင်တို့အား ဤသို့စိတ်အကြံ ဖြစ်ရာသလော။ မဖြစ်ရာပါ အသျှင်ဘုရား။ ထိုမဖြစ်မှုသည် အဘယ်ကြောင့်နည်း၊ အသျှင်ဘုရား ဤ (မြက်စသော) အရာသည် တပည့်တော်တို့၏ကိုယ်သော်လည်းကောင်း၊ကိုယ်ပိုင်ဥစ္စာသော်လည်းကောင်း မဟုတ်သောကြောင့်တည်း။

ရဟန်းတို့ ဤအတူ မျက်စိသည် သင်တို့၏ ဥစ္စာ မဟုတ်၊ နားသည် သင်တို့၏ ဥစ္စာ မဟုတ်၊ နှာခေါင်းသည် သင်တို့၏ ဥစ္စာ မဟုတ်၊ လြှာသည် သင်တို့၏ ဥစ္စာ မဟုတ်၊ ကိုယ်သည် သင်တို့၏ ဥစ္စာ မဟုတ်၊ စိတ်သည် သင်တို့၏ ဥစ္စာ မဟုတ်၊ ထိုဝေဒနာကို ပယ်ကြကုန်လော့၊ ထိုဝေဒနာကို ပယ်သည်ရှိသော် သင်တို့အား စီးပွါးခြင်းငှါ ချမ်းသာခြင်းငှါဖြစ်လတ္တံ့

“Ví như, này các Tỷ-kheo, trong rừng Thắng Lâm này có người mang đi, hay mang đốt, hay làm theo những gì người ấy muốn, tất cả cỏ, củi, nhánh cây hay lá, thời các Ông có nghĩ như sau: “Người ấy mang chúng tôi đi, hay đốt chúng tôi, hay làm gì chúng tôi theo ý người ấy muốn”?

—Thưa không, bạch Thế Tôn. —Vì sao? Vì chúng không phải tự ngã hay không thuộc về tự ngã.

“Cũng vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, mắt không phải của các Ông … tai không phải của các Ông … mũi không phải của các Ông … lưỡi không phải của các Ông … thân không phải của các Ông …tâm không phải của các Ông … Do duyên ý xúc khởi lên cảm thọ gì, lạc, khổ, hay bất khổ bất lạc; cảm thọ ấy không phải của các Ông. Hãy từ bỏ nó. Từ bỏ nó, sẽ đưa đến hạnh phúc, an lạc cho các Ông.”

「比丘們!猶如在這祇樹林中,人們會拿走草、薪木、枝條、樹葉,或燒掉,或依他想的而作,你們會這麼想:『人們拿走我們,或燒掉,或依他想的而作。』嗎?」

「不,大德!那是什麼原因呢?大德!因為這不是我,也不是我所。」

「同樣的,比丘們!眼非你們的 …… 耳非你們的 …… 鼻非你們的 …… 舌非你們的 …… 身非你們的 ….. 意非你們的 ….. 凡以這意觸為緣生起的或樂、或苦、或不苦不樂受也都不是你們的,你們要捨斷!捨斷了它,必將對你們有利益與安樂。」

Black Baza ©Ashin Sopāka 2017

Notes:

  1. unpleasant, pleasant, neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant

A Being

“Why now do you assume ‘a being’?
Mara, is that your speculative view?
This is a heap of sheer formations:
Here no being is found.

“Just as, with an assemblage of parts,
The word ‘chariot’ is used,
So, when the aggregates exist,
There is the convention ‘a being’.

“It’s only suffering that comes to be,
Suffering that stands and falls away.
Nothing but suffering comes to be,
Nothing but suffering ceases.” 1

Notes:

  1. SN 5.10 10. VajirāsuttaṁVajira Sutta