Salty Dhamma

“Just as the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt, even so, this Dhamma has one taste too, the taste of freedom.” – Ud 56

“Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo ekaraso loṇaraso; evamevaṁ kho, bhikkhave, ayaṁ dhammavinayo ekaraso vimuttiraso.”

“ရဟန်းတို့ မဟာသမုဒ္ဒရာသည် ငန်သော အရသာ တစ်မျိုးတည်းသာ ရှိသကဲ့သို့ ဤအတူ ဤဓမ္မဝိနယ’သာသနာတော်’၌ ကိလေသာမှ လွတ်မြောက်မှု အရသာတစ်မျိုးတည်းသာ ရှိ၏။”

“Ví như, này các Tỷ-kheo, biển lớn chỉ có một vị là vị mặn. Cũng vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, pháp này cũng chỉ có một vị là vị giải thoát.”

Pacific Swallow ©Ashin Sopāka 2017

Right Effort

“Now what, monks, is right effort? Here, monks, a monk regarding bad and unwholesome thoughts that have not yet arisen generates desire for their non-arising, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort. Regarding bad and unwholesome things that have already arisen he generates desire for their abandonment, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort. He generates desire for the arising of wholesome things that have not yet arisen, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort. Regarding wholesome things that have arisen he generates desire for their endurance, persistence, multiplication, extension, development, and fulfilment, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort.” – DN 21

“Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāvāyāmo? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu anuppannānaṁ pāpakānaṁ akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ anuppādāya chandaṁ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṁ ārabhati cittaṁ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṁ pāpakānaṁ akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānāya chandaṁ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṁ ārabhati cittaṁ paggaṇhāti padahati; anuppannānaṁ kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ uppādāya chandaṁ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṁ ārabhati cittaṁ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṁ kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṁ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṁ ārabhati cittaṁ paggaṇhāti padahati.”

ရဟန်းတို့ သမ္မာဝါယာမသည် အဘယ်နည်း။ ရဟန်းတို့ ဤသာသနာတော်၌ ရဟန်းသည် မဖြစ်သေးသော ယုတ်မာသော အကုသိုလ်တရားတို့ကိုမဖြစ်ပေါ်စေရန် ဆန္ဒကို ဖြစ်စေ၏၊ အားထုတ်၏၊ လုံ့လပြု၏၊ စိတ်ကို ချီးမြှောက်၏၊ ဆောက်တည်၏။ ဖြစ်ပြီးသော ယုတ်မာသော အကုသိုလ်တရားတို့ကို ပယ်ရန် ဆန္ဒကို ဖြစ်စေ၏၊ အားထုတ်၏၊ လုံ့လပြု၏၊ စိတ်ကို ချီးမြှောက်၏၊ ဆောက်တည်၏။ မဖြစ်သေးသော ကုသိုလ်တရားတို့ကို ဖြစ်စေရန် ဆန္ဒကိုဖြစ်စေ၏၊ အားထုတ်၏၊ လုံ့လပြု၏၊ စိတ်ကို ချီးမြှောက်၏၊ ဆောက်တည်၏။ ဖြစ်ပြီးသော ကုသိုလ်တရားတို့ကို တည်မြဲစေရန် မပျောက်ပျက်စေရန် တိုးတက်ဖြစ်ပွါးစေရန် ပြန့်ပြောစေရန် ပွါးများမှု ပြည့်စုံစေရန် ဆန္ဒကို ဖြစ်စေ၏၊ အားထုတ်၏၊ လုံ့လပြု၏၊ စိတ်ကို ချီးမြှောက်၏၊ ဆောက်တည်၏။

“Này các Tỷ kheo, và thế nào là Chánh tinh tấn? Này các Tỷ kheo, ở đây Tỷ kheo, đối với các ác, bất thiện pháp chưa sanh, khởi lên ý muốn không cho sanh khởi; vị này nỗ lực, tinh tấn, quyết tâm, trì chí. Ðối với các ác, bất thiện pháp đã sanh, khởi lên ý muốn trừ diệt, vị này nỗ lực, tinh tấn, quyết tâm, trì chí. Ðối với các thiện pháp chưa sanh, khởi lên ý muốn khiến cho sanh khởi; vị này nỗ lực, tinh tấn, quyết tâm, trì chí. Ðối với các thiện pháp đã sanh, khởi lên ý muốn khiến cho an trú, không cho băng hoại, khiến cho tăng trưởng, phát triển, viên mãn. Vị này nỗ lực, tinh tấn, quyết tâm, trì chí.”

「而,比丘們!什麼是正精進?比丘們!這裡,比丘為了未生起的惡不善法之不生起而生欲、努力、生起活力、發心、勤奮;為了已生起的惡不善法之捨斷而生欲、努力、生起活力、發心、勤奮;為了未生起的善法之生起而生欲、努力、生起活力、發心、勤奮;為了已生起的善法之存續、不消失、增加、擴大、圓滿修習而生欲、努力、生起活力、發心、勤奮,比丘們!」

Orange Bellied Flowerpecker ©Ashin Sopāka 2017

Good Person Good Family

“When a good person is born in a family, it is for the good, welfare, and happiness of many people. It is for the good, welfare, and happiness of his mother and father, his wife and children, his workers and servants, his friends and companions, and ascetics and brahmins. Just as a great rain cloud, nurturing all the crops, appears for the good, welfare, and happiness of many people, so too, when a good person is born in a family, it is for the good, welfare, and happiness of many people.” – AN 5.42

“Sappuriso, bhikkhave, kule jāyamāno bahuno janassa atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti; mātāpitūnaṁ atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti; puttadārassa atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti; dāsakam­ma­ka­ra­porisassa atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti; mittāmaccānaṁ atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti; samaṇab­rāhma­ṇā­naṁ atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, mahāmegho sabbasassāni sampādento bahuno janassa atthāya hitāya sukhāya hoti.”

“ရဟန်းတို့ အမျိုး၌ သူတော်ကောင်းဖြစ်ထွန်းသည်ရှိသော် များစွာသော လူအပေါင်း၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန် ချမ်းသာရန် ဖြစ်၏။ အမိအဖတို့၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန် ချမ်းသာရန်ဖြစ်၏၊ သားမယား၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန် ချမ်းသာရန် ဖြစ်၏၊ ကျွန်အမှုလုပ်တို့၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန် ချမ်းသာရန် ဖြစ်၏၊ အဆွေခင်ပွန်းတို့၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန်ချမ်းသာရန် ဖြစ်၏၊ သမဏဗြာဟ္မဏတို့၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန် ချမ်းသာရန် ဖြစ်၏။ ရဟန်းတို့ ကြီးစွာသော မိုးသည် ခပ်သိမ်းသော ကောက်စပါးတို့ကို ကောင်းစွာ ပြည့်စုံစေသည် ဖြစ်၍လူများစွာ၏ အကျိုးရှိရန် အစီးအပွါးဖြစ်ရန် ချမ်းသာရန် ဖြစ်သကဲ့သို့” … ဟု (မိန့်တော်မူ၏)။

“Bậc Chân nhân, này các Tỷ-kheo, sinh ra trong gia đình, đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho nhiều người; đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho mẹ cha; đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho vợ con; đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho các người hầu hạ, làm công; đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho các bạn bè, thân hữu; đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho các Sa-môn, Bà-la-môn. Này các Tỷ-kheo, ví như trận mưa lớn đem lại các mùa gặt được nhiều chín muồi, đưa lại lợi ích, hạnh phúc và an lạc cho nhiều người.”

「比丘們!當善人出生在家中時,他是對眾人有利益、有利、安樂者:是對父母有利益、有利、安樂者;是對妻與子有利益、有利、安樂者;是對奴僕、工人、傭人有利益、有利、安樂者;是對朋友、同事有利益、有利、安樂者;是對沙門、婆羅門有利益、有利、安樂者。猶如當大雨雲滋潤一切穀物時,它是對眾人有利益、有利、安樂者,同樣的。」

Top: Chinese Swan Goose
Middle: Eurasian Tree Sparrow
Bottom: Cattle Egret
©Ashin Sopāka 2017

Pure Bodily Action

“And how is one made pure in three ways by bodily action? There is the case where a certain person, abandoning the taking of life, abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He does not take, in the manner of a thief, things in a village or a wilderness that belong to others and have not been given by them. Abandoning sensual misconduct, he abstains from sensual misconduct. He does not get sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers, their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dhamma; those with husbands, those who entail punishments, or even those crowned with flowers by another man. This is how one is made pure in three ways by bodily action.” – AN 10.176

“Kathaṁ, cunda, tividhaṁ kāyena soceyyaṁ hoti? Idha, cunda, ekacco pāṇātipātaṁ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti nihitadaṇḍo nihitasattho, lajjī dayāpanno, sabba­pāṇa­bhūta­hi­tānukampī viharati. Adinnādānaṁ pahāya, adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti. Yaṁ taṁ parassa para­vit­tūpaka­ra­ṇaṁ gāmagataṁ vā araññagataṁ vā, na taṁ adinnaṁ they­ya­saṅ­khā­taṁ ādātā hoti. Kāmesu­micchā­cāraṁ pahāya, kāmesu­micchā­cārā paṭivirato hoti yā tā māturakkhitā piturakkhitā ­mātāpi­tu­rak­khitā bhāturakkhitā bhagi­ni­rak­khitā ñātirakkhitā gottarakkhitā dhammarakkhitā sasāmikā saparidaṇḍā antamaso mālā­guḷa­parik­khit­tāpi, tathārūpāsu na cārittaṁ āpajjitā hoti. Evaṁ kho, cunda, tividhaṁ kāyena soceyyaṁ hoti.”

“စုန္ဒ အဘယ်သို့လျှင် ကိုယ်ဖြင့် စင်ကြယ်မှုသည် သုံးမျိုးဖြစ်သနည်း။ စုန္ဒ ဤလောက၌ အချို့သော သူသည် အသက်သတ်ခြင်းကို ပယ်၍ အသက်သတ်ခြင်းမှ ရှောင်ကြဉ်သူ ဖြစ်၏၊ တုတ်ကို ချထားပြီး ဖြစ်၏၊ လက်နက်ကို ချထားပြီး ဖြစ်၏၊ ရှက်ခြင်းရှိ၏၊ သနားတတ်၏၊ ခပ်သိမ်းသော သတ္တဝါတို့၏ အစီးအပွါးကို လိုလားလျက် နေ၏။ မပေးသည်ကို ယူခြင်းကို ပယ်၍ မပေးသည်ကို ယူခြင်းမှ ရှောင်ကြဉ်၏၊ ရွာ၌ဖြစ်စေ တော၌ဖြစ်စေ တည်သော သူတစ်ပါး၏ ပစ္စည်းဥစ္စာအသုံးအဆောင်ကို မပေးဘဲ မယူတတ်သူ ဖြစ်၏။ ကာမတို့၌ မှားယွင်းစွာ ကျင့်ခြင်းကို ပယ်၍ ကာမတို့၌ မှားယွင်းစွာ ကျင့်ခြင်းမှ ရှောင်ကြဉ်သူ ဖြစ်၏၊ အကြင်မိန်းမတို့ကို အမိစောင့်၏၊ အဖေ စာင့်၏၊ အမိအဖစောင့်၏၊ မောင်ကြီး မောင်ငယ်စောင့်၏၊ အစ်မညီမစောင့်၏၊ ဆွေမျိုးစောင့်၏၊ အနွယ်စောင့်၏၊ တရားကျင့်ဖော်စောင့်၏၊ အရှင် ‘လင်’ ရှိ၏၊ ဒဏ်ထား၏၊ အယုတ်သဖြင့် ပန်းခွေဖြင့်သော်လည်း ကာရံထား၏၊ ထိုကဲ့သို့သော မိန်းမတို့၌ သွားလာခြင်းသို့ မရောက်တတ်သူ ဖြစ်၏။ စုန္ဒ ဤသို့လျှင် ကိုယ်ဖြင့် စင်ကြယ်မှုသည် သုံးမျိုးဖြစ်၏။”

“Này Cunda, thế nào là tịnh hạnh về thân có ba? Ở đây, này Cunda, có người đoạn tận sát sanh, từ bỏ sát sanh, bỏ trượng, bỏ kiếm, biết tàm quý, có lòng từ, sống thương xót đến hạnh phúc tất cả chúng sanh, và loài hữu tình. Ðoạn tận lấy của không cho, từ bỏ lấy của không cho; bất cứ vật gì của người khác, hoặc tại thôn làng, hoặc tại rừng núi, không có cho người ấy, người ấy không lấy với ý niệm trộm cắp. Ðoạn tận tà hạnh trong các dục, từ bỏ tà hạnh trong các dục, không hành tà hạnh với hạng nữ nhân có mẹ che chở, có cha che chở, có anh che chở, có chị che chở, có bà con che chở, có pháp che chở, đã có chồng, được hình phạt gậy gộc bảo vệ, cho đến những nữ nhân được trang sức bằng vòng hoa (đám cưới). Như vậy, này Cunda, tịnh hạnh về thân có ba.”

「純陀!如何有三種身體的清淨行呢? 純陀!這裡,某人捨斷殺生後,是離殺生者,他住於已捨離棍棒、已捨離刀劍、有羞恥的、同情的、對一切活的生物憐愍的。他捨斷未給予而取後,是離未給予而取者:他到村落或到林野,不未給予而拿走那些他人的其它財產與資具而被稱為偷盜。他捨斷邪淫後,是離邪淫者:他不與那些被母親守護、被父親守護、被兄弟守護、被姊妹守護、被親族守護、被氏族守護、被法守護、有夫、有懲罰保護、乃至被套過花蔓環(已訂婚)那樣的女子性交。純陀!這樣,有三種身體的清淨行。」

This Holy Life

“So this holy life, bhikkhus, does not have gain, honour, and renown for its benefit, or the attainment of virtue for its benefit, or the attainment of concentration for its benefit, or knowledge and vision for its benefit. But it is this unshakeable deliverance of mind that is the goal of this holy life, its heartwood, and its end.” – MN 29

“Iti kho, bhikkhave, nayidaṁ brahmacariyaṁ lābhasakkā­ra­silo­kā­nisaṁ­saṁ, na sīla­sampa­dā­nisaṁ­saṁ, na samā­dhi­sampa­dā­nisaṁ­saṁ, na ­ñāṇadas­sanā­nisaṁ­saṁ. Yā ca kho ayaṁ, bhikkhave, akuppā cetovimutti—etadatthamidaṁ, bhikkhave, brahmacariyaṁ, etaṁ sāraṁ etaṁ pariyosānan”ti.

“ရဟန်းတို့ ဤသို့လျှင် ဤသာသနာတော်သည် လာဘ်သပ်ပကာ အကျော်အစောဟူသော အကျိုး ရှိမှုအတွက် မဟုတ်ပေ၊ အကျင့်သီလပြည့်စုံခြင်း ဟူသော အကျိုးရှိမှုအတွက် မဟုတ်ပေ၊ တည်ကြည်ခြင်းသမာဓိဟူသော အကျိုးရှိမှုအတွက် မဟုတ်ပေ၊ (ဒိဗ္ဗစက္ခု) ဉာဏ်အမြင်ဟူသော အကျိုးရှိမှုအတွက်မဟုတ်ပေ။ ရဟန်းတို့ အကြင်မပျက်စီးနိုင်သော စိတ်လွတ်မြောက်မှု (အရဟတ္တဖိုလ်) သည် ရှိ၏၊ ဤသာသနာတော်သည် ဤမပျက်စီးနိုင်သော စိတ်လွတ်မြောက်မှု (အရဟတ္တဖိုလ်) အတွက်သာ ဖြစ်၏။ ဤမပျက်စီးနိုင်သော စိတ်လွတ်မြောက်မှု (အရဟတ္တဖိုလ်) သည် အနှစ်အသားပေတည်း။ ဤမပျက်စီးနိုင်သောစိတ်လွတ်မြောက်မှု (အရဟတ္တဖိုလ်) သည် အဆုံး (ပန်းတိုင်) ပေတည်းဟု ဤတရားကို မြတ်စွာဘုရားသည်ဟောကြားတော်မူ၏။”

“Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, phạm hạnh này không phải vì lợi ích, lợi dưỡng, danh vọng, không phải vì lợi ích thành tựu giới đức, không phải vì lợi ích thành tựu thiền định, không phải vì lợi ích tri kiến. Và này các Tỷ-kheo, tâm giải thoát bất động chính là mục đích của phạm hạnh này, là lõi cây, là mục tiêu cuối cùng của phạm hạnh.”

「像這樣,比丘們!這梵行不[以]利養、恭敬、名聲為效益;不[以]戒具足為效益;不[以]定具足為效益;不[以]智見為效益,比丘們!這不可動搖的心解脫,比丘們!這是這梵行的目標,這是核心,這是終結。」